By Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot
Автор - профессор истории Ближнего и Среднего Востока Калифорнийского Университета - в своей книге даёт краткий курс истории Египта - от завоевания государства арабами, через эпоху мамлюков, объединение Египта в Османской империи, либеральные эксперименты в конституционном правительстве в начале двадцатого столетия, продолжившиеся в годы Насера и Садата, до настоящего времени, характеризующегося появлением новых политических партий, укреплением исламского фундаментализма и постепенного изменения отношения к женщинам.Образцы сканов:
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Additional resources for A History of Egypt: From the Arab Conquest to the Present
Brigandage became a threat to the trade routes and diminished commerce. Such events may have been the consequences rather than the causes of distress in the country. The bedouin may have occupied land already left vacant by the fallahin who had died of plague. Fallahin and bedouin may have taken to brigandage when the tax levels became too high. The rulers, or some among them, were indeed corrupt and incompetent but economic distress can only partially be blamed on them. The Black Death played a great role in bringing about economic hardship.
He accused their government of a lack of continuity which led to political unrest and to turmoil, resulting from the struggles among the amirs as they jockeyed for power every time one of the sultans died, or even when the amirs tired of one sultan and sought to displace him in favour of another who promised them greater spoils. Finally bedouin encroachments devastated the settled land and caused the fallahin to flee the land, or to become brigands. Brigandage became a threat to the trade routes and diminished commerce.
Qaitbay, said to be worn out by these events, died and a period of strife and chaos followed, until one amir, Qansuh al-Ghuri, finally seized power in 1501 and instituted a more repressive regime than ever before. Qansuh, whose name had become a byword in popular parlance for anyone displaying overweening arrogance and conceit, restored order, but levied ten months’ taxes and confiscated lands which were held in trust for charity. He raised customs duties, debased the coinage further but replenished the treasury.