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By Sven Erik Jørgensen; Brian Fath; Simone Bastianoni; Joao C. Marques; Felix Muller; S. Nors Nielsen; Bernard D. Patten; Enzo Tiezzi; Robert E. Ulanowicz

A New Ecology offers an surroundings idea according to the subsequent atmosphere homes: actual openness, ontic openness, directionality, connectivity, a fancy dynamic for progress and improvement, and a posh dynamic reaction to disturbances. each one of those homes is built intimately to teach that those easy and attribute homes might be utilized to give an explanation for a large spectrum of ecological obsevations and convections. it's also proven that the homes have software for environmental administration and for overview of environment well-being. * Demonstrates an atmosphere conception that may be utilized to give an explanation for ecological observations and ideas * provides an surroundings concept dependent upon a platforms strategy * Discusses an environment thought that's according to a couple of simple houses which are attribute for ecosystmes

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5 DISSIPATIVE STRUCTURE The change in entropy for an open system, dSsystem, consists of an external, exogenous contribution from the environment, deS ϭ Sin – Sout, and an internal, endogenous contribution due to system state, diS, which must always be positive by the second law of thermodynamics (Prigogine, 1980). Prigogine uses the concept of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium, which is outside the framework of classical thermodynamics, but he uses the concepts only locally.

In fact, everybody knows something about openness. We know how it is to be open to another person’s opinions, to be open minded, or open to new experiences. We enjoy that surprising things may happen on our (field) trips and journeys (in nature). In fact, any person who has tried to plan exact details for a tour into the wilderness will know how difficult this is. First, we may address the aspect of realizing such a trip and stress that this also implies the acceptance of the fact that unexpected things may or rather will occur.

Therefore, human perception is mismatched to environmental reality. This may be why we know more about disconnected objects than we do about object–environment relationships, and why science is more reductive than holistic. It appears that the property of openness, the subject of this chapter, returns us to the same kind of enigma as the wave–particle duality, giving ecology a deep challenge for its future to unravel. qxd 4/12/2007 15:31 Page 35 3 Ecosystems have ontic openness “... 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter’s title may mean little to many persons, yet the essence may be understood fairly easily on an intuitive basis.

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