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1892, 115, 236. 3 Eng. Pat. 22,119, 1913. Dulong, Annalen, 18(52, 122, 18. * Thomas, Ann. Chim. ], 13, 145, 38 A B S O R P T I O N OF NITROUS GASES This latter equilibrium has been investigated by Saposchnikofl and others l (vide nitrous acid). It is not possible to produce pure nitric acid by shaking nitrogen tetroxide with water—after a certain concentration of nitric acid is reached, the tetroxide merely dissolves, giving yellow-coloured solutions, or in the absence of air bluish-green solutions.
A g N 0 2 + HCl = AgCl + HNO 2 . 3. Mixed with inorganic salts, solutions of nitrous acid are readily obtained by treating alkali nitrites with dilute acids. Since the alkali nitrites are easily prepared, this method of preparation is usually the most convenient for laboratory purposes. Sodium or potassium nitrite may be obtained quite readily in a state of purity by passing nitrogen trioxide, or a mixture of nitric oxide and tetroxide, containing an excess of nitric oxide, into an aqueous solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide.
Preparation. 1 There are a t present two main methods of Compt. , 1912, 155, 1495. N I T R I C ACID 51 production of nitric acid. The first is the old process of manufacture from sodium nitrate and concentrated sulphuric acid. NaNO 3 + H 2 SO 4 = NaHSO 4 + HNO 3 . The second general method of production consists in the fixing of atmospheric nitrogen, in such a form t h a t it can finally be recovered as nitric acid. Such methods are divisible again into direct and indirect methods. The direct consist of processes involving the use of high temperatures which are mainly obtained by the electric arc—but m a y also be produced by other methods such as explosion, surface combustion, and so on.