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By Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

This ebook provides a accomplished evaluation of the impressive advances noticeable in atomic physics over the past 50 years. The authors clarify how such development used to be attainable by means of highlighting connections among advancements that happened at diversified occasions. They talk about the hot views and the recent examine fields that glance promising. The emphasis is put, now not on distinct calculations, yet fairly on actual rules. Combining either theoretical and experimental concerns, the e-book may be of curiosity to a variety of scholars, academics and researchers in quantum and atomic physics.

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E. an excited sublevel me = +1. A similar calculation shows that a σ− -polarized excitation leads to a me = −1 excited sublevel. Finally, for a π-polarization, we have ε = εz , so that HI contains the component Dz = qz of D, which has no ϕ-dependence and can excite only the me = 0 sublevel. For a ℓg = 0 ↔ ℓe = 1 transition, we therefore have the polarization selection rules σ+ → me − mg = +1, σ− → me − mg = −1, π → me − mg = 0. 25) When the spins of the electrons and of the nucleus are taken into account, the internal atomic states are labelled by the total angular momentum quantum numbers (J, M ).

3) The new variables R, P , r, p obey the commutation relations: [ri , pj ] = i δij , [Ri , Pj ] = i δij , i, j = x, y, z. 4) The variables R and P are called the center of mass variables or external variables. The variables r and p are called internal variables. 1 The external variables are the variables of the center of mass and describe the motion of the atom as a whole. The internal variables describe the relative motion of the various constituents of the atom. 1 See for example the appendix of [van Enk (1994)], which is also reprinted in [Allen et al.

3. They are a useful guide for understanding the important advances of atomic physics of the last few decades made through our ability to manipulate the internal and external degrees of freedom of atoms. The conservation of angular momentum explains the transfer of angular momentum from polarized photons to the internal degrees of freedom of atoms and is at the basis of the optical methods (double resonance and optical pumping) that are described in detail in Chap. 3. More recently, it has been shown that special types of laser beams, called Laguerre-Gaussian beams, also carry an “orbital” angular momentum that can be transferred to the external degrees of freedom of ultracold atoms.

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