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By John Murphy

Whereas a lot consciousness has been targeted lately upon Iran's fiery and arguable president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the nation's different prime energy dealer has remained principally within the shadows...until now. Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei used to be born right into a kinfolk of strict piety and reasonable poverty. As a serious-minded spiritual pupil, he quickly stuck the attention of the Ayatollah Khomeini. becoming a member of Khomeini in his innovative actions opposed to the U.S.-backed Shah of Iran, Khamenei was once time and again imprisoned and tortured. Undaunted, he survived to witness Khomeini's positive go back from exile and used to be rewarded for his sacrifices to the Islamic revolution with a sequence of significant executive and spiritual appointments. Upon Khomeini's demise, Khamenei used to be named his successor and have become the Grand Ayatollah of Iran. This new biography is key studying for these desirous to know about a guy prone to develop into some of the most influential international leaders of the twenty first century.

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Related to this was their faith in the king of kings, a living representative of God on earth, who was just, all-powerful, and, as long as he fought for good, deserving of absolute loyalty and obedience. They were justly proud of their culture and all they had been able to achieve and felt somewhat superior to their Arab conquerors. Though Arabs were the chosen people of Allah, they were considered by “cultured” Persians to be mere desert-dwelling, animal-herding barbarians. Islam taught equality of all men and insisted that one’s allegiance and loyalty belonged to Allah, not to any state or leader.

World powers against each other in order to gain power, stature, and wealth. Generally speaking, the effort failed, and Iran was simply used and abused as the world powers, including the United States, shifted their spheres of influence and raided the nation of its wealth and resources. As the Western world grew richer and more industrialized, Iran seemed to wither on the vine. Its roads were neglected, its communication systems were antiquated, poor land use led to desertification, and its traditional trade dried up once Western manufactured goods entered the global marketplace.

As with the tobacco revolt, merchants, peasants, clerics, and members of the middle class banded together and demanded change. Led by two ayatollahs, the movement grew into a fullscale revolution. The people demanded a halt to the Qajars’ disastrous trade policies, a new commitment to sound financial management and spending restraint, and an end to foreign influence and economic meddling. Most important, they demanded a reduction in the power of the monarchy through the drafting of a constitution and the creation of a parliament in which all Iranians could be represented by popularly elected officials.

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