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She also built her own beautiful temple at Deir el Bahri. The temple of Queen Hatshepsut in Luxor, Egypt. Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful female monarchs of the ancient world. Mladen Antonov/AFP/Getty Images 38 The Dynasties of Egypt Amenhotep III built the wonderful Temple at Luxor and put up the famous pair of colossal seated statues called the Colossi of Memnon. In the Middle Kingdom period, the pharaohs of Thebes had built modest brick pyramids for their tombs. In the New Kingdom period they broke with this tradition and began to hew tombs deep in the cliffs of an isolated valley west of Thebes.

The Rhind papyrus (in the British Museum) is a copy made in the 17th century bc of a text two centuries older 56 Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt still. In it is found a long table of fractional parts to help with division, followed by the solutions of 84 specific problems in arithmetic and geometry. The Golenischchev papyrus (in the Moscow Museum of Fine Arts), dating from the 19th century bc, presents 25 problems of a similar type. These problems reflect well the functions the scribes would perform, for they deal with how to distribute beer and bread as wages, for example, and how to measure the areas of fields as well as the volumes of pyramids and other solids.

The climax of pyramid building was reached in the three gigantic tombs erected for Kings Khufu (Cheops), Khafre, and Menkure at Giza (Gizeh). Near them in the sand lies the Great Sphinx, a stone lion with the head of King Khafre. The Old Kingdom lasted about 500 years. It was an active, optimistic age, an age of peace and splendor. Art reached a brilliant flowering. Sculpture achieved a grandeur never later attained. The pharaoh kept a splendid court. The people worshiped him as a god on Earth, for they believed him to be the son of Ra, or Re, the great sun-god.

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