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Hence they come out with continuously varying energies. Ellis and Wooster in 1927, performed an experiment to verify this hypothesis. They placed a β-emitting source (RaE) in a thick-walled calorimeter designed to absorb all of the emitted β-particles and measured the total heat (energy) produced by a known number of disintegrations. The heat produced divided by the number of disintegrations gave the average energy per disintegration, Kaverage. 35 MeV, which fairly agreed with the average energy computed from the distribution curve, but was much less than Kmax.

Solution: The radioactive constant λ and the half-life period T of a radioactive element are related as λ = Here T = 20 years. 03465 per year. 4. 28 × l0–4 per year. 28 × 10 −4 / year = 1619 years. The mean-life is T = 1 1 = = 2336 years. 28 × 10 −4 / year 30 Encyclopaedia of Atomic Physics 5. Ten milligrams of a radioactive substance of half-life period two years is kept in store for four years. How much of the substance remains unchanged ? Solution: The time-interval in which the mass (or number of atoms) of a radioactive element decays to one half of its initial value, is called the ‘half-life’ of the element.

0 keV for aluminium and 500 keV for lead), the photoelectric effect is chiefly responsible for the γ-ray absorption. (ii) Compton Scattering: At energies in the neighbourhood of 1 MeV, Compton scattering becomes the chief cause of removal of photons from the γ-ray beam. In this process the γ-ray photon is scattered by one of the atomic electrons which is separated from its atom. The scattered photon moves with reduced energy in a 58 Encyclopaedia of Atomic Physics direction different from the original direction and is thus removed from the incident beam.

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