Download Atoms in intense laser fields by Gavrila M. (ed.) PDF

By Gavrila M. (ed.)

The sector of laser-atom interactions has gone through impressive growth lately, due basically to the appearance of superintense laser radiation. New phenomena were chanced on over a vast variety of frequencies, from microwaves to the noticeable, and to X-rays, which require novel theoretical techniques. This booklet includes a particular choice of overviews of the most recent advances, written through many of the prime experts. it really is addressed to all these lively in those fields, however it comprises enough introductory info to make it valuable for a extra normal viewers. The booklet examines the results of superintense laser fields on multiphoton ionization and harmonic iteration; covers novel results with ultrashort, subpicosecond laser pulses; positive aspects Rydberg atoms in extreme microwave fields; and provides nonperturbative theories of laser-atom interactions, similar to the Floquet equipment and the time established Schroedinger schooling strategy.

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2. Representation of Multipoles and Statistical Tensors To obtain the statistical tensors of the photon, we consider the representation of the total angular momentum. 120) p=O,ILM Wave functions I pLM) describe the states of the photon with angular momentum L and its projection M on the quantization axis z. Summation in Eq. 120) starts from L = 1 (an absence of photons with L = 0 is a result of their transverse polarization). The quantum number p specifies the type of photon: either electric (p = 0) or magnetic (p = O.

110) The state of a photon linearly polarized along some direction cp in the xy-plane can be then written in the form Ik,eqJ) = cos cp Ik,ex) + sincp Ik,ey) 1 ( e-lqJlk,A=+I)-ezqJlk,A=-I) . 113) It follows from Eq. 115) Hence, in the case of arbitrary PI, P2, and P3, the photon is circularly and linearly polarized. 116) The equality ~}=l The parameter p? = 1 indicates that the polarization state of the photon is pure. 117) is called the degree of linear polarization. 116) imposes the restriction P; + S 1.

Under inversion, the statistical tensors acquire a phase factor 11 = nnf, where nand nf are internal parities of states with j and 1', respectively. If at least one of the states does not have definite parity, the transformation, which includes inversion, in general is not the transformation of symmetry. The reflection in a plane is a product of two transformations: rotation through an angle 1800 about the axis perpendicular to the plane and the inversion. Rotations and inversion are commutative.

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