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By Martin N. Pernoll

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A partially organized adrenal cortex and medulla are evident by the ninth through tenth weeks. Anomalous female urogenital development, including congenital uterine abnormalities, strange anatomic inclusions, or even pelvic tumors, may represent vestigial male counterparts (Figs. 1-6 and Table 1-1). This page intentionally left blank. C H A P T E R 2 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY AND REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY The female reproductive system is composed of the external and internal genitalia.

PERINEAL BODY, FOURCHETTE, AND FOSSA NAVICULARIS The perineal body includes the skin and underlying tissues between the anal orifice and the vaginal entrance. The perineal body is supported by the transverse perineal muscle and the lower portions of the bulbocavernosus muscle. The labia minora and majora converge posteriorly to form a low ridge called the fourchette. Between this fold and posterior to the hymen is a shallow depression termed the fossa navicularis. Innervation and Blood Supply These structures are supplied by the pudendal and inferior hemorrhoidal nerves, arteries, and veins.

The juncture of these two epithelia is variable and is subject to continual revision under the influence of infections, hormones, and trauma. The countless crevices that give the cervical canal a honeycombed appearance on transverse section are infoldings of the mucus-secreting membrane. Excluding the epithelial covering and the cervical canal, the cervix is composed of approximately 85% connective tissue and 15% smooth muscle fibers that join the uterine myometrium above. The anatomic structure of the cervix undergoes marked alteration during pregnancy, labor, and delivery.

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