By Dmitry Murzin, Olga Simakova (eds.)
Biomass-derived sugars offer a wealthy, renewable feedstock for a various diversity of chemical compounds, making them a promising and possible resource for the sustainable manufacture of a number of beneficial items. Exploring eco-friendly sugar-based applied sciences past their purposes in fuels, this ebook offers an summary of sugar-based applied sciences, describing their demanding situations and possibilities. It covers ameliorations of sugars into eco-friendly chemical substances in prescription drugs, biodegradable polymers and surfactants. a different bankruptcy is devoted to the conversion of biomass into sugars, that is a very important step within the sustainable usage of sugars. The publication is a worthy source for chemists and chemical engineers operating to increase greener artificial routes to chemical compounds and prescribed drugs
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Extra info for Biomass Sugars for Non-Fuel Applications
Typically, hardwood hemicelluloses and grasses contain a high degree of xylans (main backbone is made up of xylose units with branching after 7–10 units). Based on the substituent present on xylose, their names are derived as arabinoxylan and arabinoglucoronoxylan. On the contrary, softwood hemicelluloses are largely galactoglucomannans but along with them, some small portion of xylan is also present. Due to the random and branched structure of hemicelluloses, they do not have any extensive hydrogen bonding (like in cellulose), which makes hemicelluloses amorphous in nature.
118 However, when conventional heating is replaced with microwave heating, a ca. 119 Although zeolites are active in these reactions, lower hydrothermal stability and leaching of Si and Al in the solution hamper their use. Thus, it is important to synthesize zeolites with higher thermal stability to help achieve recyclable activity in cellulose hydrolysis reactions. 120 It is suggested that lattice Al counteracts the hydrolysis of framework bonds and extra framework Al prevents the solubilization of the framework.
Because of a large pore diameter and acidity, these materials (MCM-41, SBA-15, FSM-16 and HMM (Hybrid Mesoporous Materials))132 are largely used in several acid catalysed reactions such as etherification, esterification etc. 133,134 Nevertheless, when these catalysts are used in the presence of water, leaching of –SO3H groups is observed, which makes these catalysts unsuitable for hydrolysis or dehydration reactions. 90 mmol gÀ1 showed very high catalytic activity for sucrose conversion (81–90%) into glucose and fructose (81–90%) at 80 1C.