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By J. H. Crouwel

This examine provides facts for shipping through wheeled automobile in Italy prior to the Roman Imperial interval, the start of that's usually considered marked by means of Augustus's conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. 3 different types of wheeled automobile documented for the interval are studied: the chariot, two-wheeled carts and four-wheeled wagons. a variety of facts is drawn upon together with figured files corresponding to architectural terracottas, stone reliefs, vase- and wall work; bronze and terracotta versions and the continues to be of exact automobiles, in a couple of circumstances followed by means of their harness groups recovered from tombs, basically from imperative and northern Italy of the 8th and 7th centuries BC onwards. the amount is lavishly illustrated with over a hundred and seventy plates and figures.

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Extra resources for Chariots and Other Wheeled Vehicles in Italy Before the Roman Empire

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Some surviving metal elements from a tomb in the San Martino cemetery at Civitella San Paola (ancient Capena) in Lazio, dating to c. 67 However, the surviving metal parts and decoration do not appear to warrant such a detailed reconstruction. 68 These objects come in pairs and consist of two sockets for round-sectioned pieces of wood, meeting at right-angles. They are either plain or decorated to varying degrees. 69 The angle-sockets from outside Italy, which come in pairs or fours, belong to the seventh and sixth centuries.

Chariot, chariot procession, chariot race, charioteer. 16 See especially Andrén 1939–40, 409f. nos 1–2 with pl. 1–2; Winter, N. A. , 580f. 23 (and ills of Roofs 5–2 to 5–7). 17 See especially Brown, A. C. 76; Lubtchansky 2006; Lulof 2006; Winter, N. A. 1 and fig. 22 (and ills of Roofs 5–8, 5–9 and 5–10); Winter, N. A. 2010; Crouwel 2010; Lubtchansky 2010; Lulof 2010a and 2010b (moulds 1, 3–4). 18 Winter, N. A. ; 2010. 19 See especially Andrén 1939–40, 373f. 1–2 and pl. 115: 406; 1974, 3 and figs 1–21; La grande Roma no.

8; Höckmann 1982, 42–4 and fig. 25 and pl. 30 (from ‘Streitwagen II’). For the actual chariot, which was possibly of our Type V, see our p. 24 and note 95. 13 See especially Jannot 1984, no. C,I,8 and fig. 172 (also Paribeni 1938, no. 118; Brendel 1978, 280 and fig. 197; Sprenger and Bartoloni 1990, pl. 166, middle; Gli Etruschi cat. no. 261), no. C,II,22 and fig. 265 (also Paribeni 1938, no. 128; L’archeologia racconta no. 57), no. C,III,14 and fig. 345 no. D,II,4 and fig. 539 (also Paribeni 1938, no.

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