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By Giorgio Tamburlini, Ondine S. Von Ehrenstein

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Extra resources for Children's Health and Environment: A Review of Evidence (Environmental Issue Reports)

Sample text

Chemical contamination may be due to a variety of compounds. Arsenic is one of the most ubiquitous water and food contaminants. It is produced by a variety of activities, such as smelting and coalburning, most of which are more frequently encountered in countries with an intermediate level of development, since the use of arsenic is decreasing in many modern industries with the exception of electronics. Arsenic is naturally occuring in the earths crust and may be introduced into water through the dissolution of minerals, from industrial effluents and via atmospheric deposition.

01 mg/litre. 75 litres of drinking water per day. As Environmental hazards in specific settings and media: an overview infants are considered to be the most sensitive age group to lead, this guideline level will be protective for other age groups. High concentrations of nitrate in drinking water are of concern because nitrate can be reduced to nitrite, causing methaemglobinaemia. The haemoglobin of young children is particularly susceptible to methaemglobinaemia and this together with the increased ratio of water consumption to bodyweight makes infants particularly vulnerable to this disease.

In industrialised countries, there are more than 15 000 high volume chemicals, which are produced and dispersed in the environment. 4. 03 Bentazone 30 Disinfectants 4 Monochloroamine 3 Iodine — no adequate data Disinfectant by-products 18 Bromoform 100 Chlorite 200 (provisional) No priority intended by these examples. The health effects of microbiological contamination of water and food are described in Chapters 7 and 8. The health risk associated with toxic chemicals in drinking water differs from that of microbiological contamination..

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