By Michael Cox, Henk Nugteren, Mária Janssen-Jurkovičová
The 1st publication on novel items derived from the hot new release of combustion ashes, Combustion Residues —Sustainable Applications discusses the character of ashes derived from coal co-combustion, biomass, and different fuels in conventional and stand-alone strength vegetation and municipal waste incinerators. moreover, the publication examines the improvement of novel advertisement items incorporating such ashes, together with the significance of technical and environmental criteria, advertising and marketing options, and promotion.Content:
Chapter 1 the present and destiny Nature of Combustion Ashes (pages 1–84): Alan Thompson
Chapter 2 confirmed makes use of of Combustion Residues (pages 85–135): Michael Anderson, Rod Jones and Michael McCarthy
Chapter three barriers of Combustion Ashes: ‘From danger to learn’ (pages 137–198): Henk Nugteren
Chapter four Novel items and functions with Combustion Residues (pages 199–378): Henk Nugteren, Rod Jones, Michael McCarthy, Michael Anderson, Xavier Querol, Natalia Moreno, Flavio Cioffi, Ann Sullivan, Robert Hill, Constantino Fernandez?Pereira, Luis Vilches Arenas, Richard Kruger, Mercedes Maroto?Valer and Michael Cox
Chapter five Novel items – from inspiration to industry (pages 379–417): Ian Barnes and Fritz Moedinger
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Additional info for Combustion Residues: Current, Novel and Renewable Applications
36 THE CURRENT AND FUTURE NATURE OF COMBUSTION ASHES separate flue gas from the entrained particles, which are continuously recycled to the bottom of the fluidised bed. Individual particles may be recycled anything from 10 to 50 times, depending on their size and on how quickly the char burns away. Combustion conditions are relatively uniform throughout the combustor, although the bed is somewhat denser near the bottom of the combustion chamber. There is a great deal of mixing, and residence time during one pass is very short.
Grate ash, boiler bank ash and fly ash are collected in containers and hoppers. The ash by-product is blended and conditioned before being sold under the brand name Fibrophos. Energy Power Resources Ltd have developed the first fluidised bed combustion system to burn poultry litter. At their Westfield Biomass Plant, a steam turbine feeds electricity to the Scottish grid via a longterm electricity purchase contract. The plant has a net electricity output of 10 MW and converts 115 000 tonnes per year of poultry litter into energy and ash for fertiliser, without producing any waste.
Prediction of environmental quality of by-products of coal-fired power plants; elemental composition and leaching. In Proc. Int. Conf. WASCON 97, Houthem St. Gerlach, the Netherlands, 4–7 June, 1997, published in ‘Studies in Environmental Science 71, Waste Materials in Construction; Putting Theory into Practice’. M. J. A. van der Sloot (eds), Elsevier, Amsterdam (1997). 9 The particle size distribution of PFA produced in the Netherlands, determined by laser diffractometry in the dry form (Reproduced by permission of KEMA).