Download Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Vol 3 by Raymond E Kirk; Donald F Othmer; Martin Grayson; David PDF

By Raymond E Kirk; Donald F Othmer; Martin Grayson; David Eckroth; et al

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Profile of the International Membrane Industry 39 2 The World Market Manufacturing is continuing to lose out to some of the country's neighbours where labour is less costly. Japan has been very self-sufficient in manufactured goods, and has been unwilling to use non-domestic components in them. Non-Japanese companies have resorted to joint ventures to overcome this resistance, but recent events have forced a more open policy, that has extended this into actual inward investment, such as the Renauh-Nissan and Roche-Chugai associations.

RO was the first of the filtration processes to use membranes. It was developed in order to provide absolutely pure water by preventing the passage of almost all suspended or dissolved materials from the feed water. It uses an almost impervious membrane, through which water can only be forced at high trans-membrane pressures. Nanofihration (NF) has appeared quite recently as a 'relaxed' form of RO, using lower transmembrane pressures and separating ions and dissolved materials in quite low molecular weight ranges.

91% in 2008. 5 billion. 5 Spain Although on a par with the 'big four' Western European countries in geographical terms, Spain has a much smaller economy, even if it is one that has benefited greatly from EU membership. Despite having the highest rate of unemployment of all of the European countries (although falling steadily from its peak, and currently around 11%), Spain is growing quite strongly, but it is not expected that these high rates of growth will last. 24 Profile of the International Membrane Industry 2 The World Market Its level of industrial development is considerably below that of northern Europe, but it is catching up fast.

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