Download Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in by William Minter PDF

By William Minter

Of all of the many violent chapters in fresh Southern African background, the conflicts in Angola and Mozambique on the grounds that independence in 1975 were the main protracted, complicated and lethal for hundreds of thousands of civilians. William Minter argues that they signify a brand new type of non-conventional battle attribute of the 'contra' interval - neither vintage guerrilla conflict nor common exterior aggression, yet comprising components of civil warfare ruled via neighborhood and worldwide exterior powers.He examines the Unita and Renamo social constructions, exterior interventions, styles of army recruitment, conditioning, logistics and technique, and the errors made by means of the Angolan and Mozambican states.

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Additional info for Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique

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Ldt• in the Bight of Biafra and its hinterland foll~>wing the expansion in the p

Internal productiYe acti\icics. bh h~>her than females, this trend was not reflected in the Biafr• nurket which exported as many men as women from about the seYenteenth cenrury and through the eighteenth cenru::y. 1 per cent. 12 Other data support this shift in male/female ratio for the Bight of Biafra. patternS that emerged from the nineteenth century are reflected m the compilation, Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, wruch shows a significant increase in the number of males and the proportion of children le~v­ ute ol TJ:e ing Africa.

Ibis was because the export trade of Nembe-Brass since 1855 has been either static or depreciating. In 1855, for example, Nembe-Brass exported 2,800 tons of palm oil; however, after about thirty years (1888), the output fell to 2,000 tons. 34 In the event, much to the chagrin of the Nembe-Brass middlemen, the African Association terminated its political alliance and commercial relationship with them. inistration did not by itself immediately solve New Calabar's major problem; for the problem of Protectorate traders' access to markets still claimed by the Royal Niger Company remained.

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