By Ashok Pandey, Duu-Jong Lee, Yusuf Chisti, Carlos R. Soccol
This ebook presents in-depth details on simple and utilized features of biofuels construction from algae. It starts off with an advent to the subject, and follows with the elemental clinical facets of algal cultivation and its use for biofuels creation, comparable to photograph bioreactor engineering for microalgae construction, open tradition structures for biomass construction and the economics of biomass creation. It offers cutting-edge info on man made biology techniques for algae appropriate for biofuels creation, by means of algal biomass harvesting, algal oils as fuels, biohydrogen creation from algae, formation/production of co-products, and extra. The ebook additionally covers themes similar to metabolic engineering and molecular biology for algae for gas creation, existence cycle overview and scale-up and commercialization. it's hugely worthy and lets you plan new study and layout new economically practicable methods for the construction of unpolluted fuels from algae.
- Covers in a complete yet concise manner many of the algae biomass conversion applied sciences presently available
- Lists all of the items made from algae, i.e. biohydrogen, gasoline oils, etc., their houses and power uses
- Includes the economics of some of the techniques and the mandatory steps for scaling them up
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Apparently, open systems are potentially subject to contamination resulting from the free gas exchange from the environment to the cultivation system. 1 29 Advantages and Disadvantages of Open and Closed Algal Cultivation Plants (Pulz, 2001). Parameter Open Ponds (Raceway Ponds) Closed Systems (PBR Systems) Contamination risk Extremely high Low Space required High Low Water losses Extremely high Almost none CO2 losses High Almost none Biomass quality Not susceptible Susceptible Variability as to cultivatable species Not given; cultivation possibilities are restricted to a few algal varieties High; nearly all microalgal varieties Flexibility of production Change of production between the possible varieties nearly impossible Change of production without any problems Reproducibility of production parameters Not given; dependent on exterior conditions Possible within certain tolerances Process control Not given Given Standardization Not possible Possible Weather dependence Absolute; production impossible during rain Insignificant because closed configurations allow production during bad weather Period until net production is reached after start or interruption Long; approx.
Solix is also collaborating with the Los Alamos National Laboratory to use its acoustic-focusing technology to concentrate algal cells into a dense mixture by blasting them with sound waves. Oil can then be extracted from the mixture by squeezing it out; this makes the extraction process much easier and cheaper, obviating the need for chemical solvents. 5 COMMERCIAL MICROALGAE CULTIVATION SYSTEMS FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION liters of naval distillate fuel. Solazyme went public (IPO) in 2011 at $18 per share and raised $198 million in the process.
Navy. S. Department of Defense for production of up to 550,000 additional Continued 2. DESIGN OF PHOTOBIOREACTORS FOR ALGAL CULTIVATION two commercial flights (Continental and JAL airlines) and a crosscountry road trip (Algaeus). 3 The Comparison of Five Leading Microalgae-Based Biofuel Companies—Cont’d Company Name Founded Time Location Biofuel Type Technology Cultivation Equipments Market Solix BioSystems 2006 Colorado, USA Biodiesel Photobioreactor system includes Solix’s proprietary Lumian panels, Solix Lumian™ Algae Growth System (AGS™).