Download Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography by Andre J. Duerinckx, A.E. Stillman PDF

By Andre J. Duerinckx, A.E. Stillman

Fresh medical growth within the improvement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategies has encouraged expanding curiosity within the noninvasive analysis of cardiovascular diseaseby MRI, together with coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). For practitioners who don't but use cardiac MRI each day, those ideas can appear overseas and complicated. Coronary Maganetic Angiography demystifies coronary MRA for the clinician, utilizing undeniable language to translate physics into scientific program and bridge the certain fields of radiology and cardiology. This e-book additionally introduces and explains complicated coronary anatomy and a spread if scientific functions to the MR physicist. the main verified and promising coronary MRA ideas are highlighted and reviewed to steer the beginner step-by-step by using complex coronary MRA pulse sequences and strategies.The booklet is prepared into 3 finished sections — medical functions, suggestions, and choices — to give the subsequent good points: - medical purposes: congenital versions, stent patency, and grafs - destiny purposes: lesion detection and vessel wall characterization - thoughts: first-, moment- and third-generation options - sufferer conception of options: breathholding as opposed to free-breathing - most modern suggestions and distinction brokers for coronary MRAEvery clinician and MR physicist profiting from those up-and-coming innovations will locate Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography a necessary and intrusive reference.

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Extra resources for Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Example text

In gradient echo imaging, the phase dispersal from the dephasing gradient lobe is balanced by the net phase from the rephasing lobe, resulting in a net zero phase for stationary protons. For moving spins, this phase calculation is complicated by the fact that position x is changing with time. The phase of a constant velocity spin group is a function of the velocity of movement along the gradient and the duration of the gradient event squared, ⌽velocity ϭ ⌽stationary ϩ ␥/2 * [VGx] * t2 From this, we see the accumulated phase (⌽) depends on the square of the gradient on-time duration (t2) more than its amplitude (Gx).

Nonrandom occurrence of single-vessel coronary artery disease. Am J Med 1984;77:683–84. 15. Waller B. Anatomy, histology, and pathology of the major epicardial coronary arteries relevant to echocardiographic imaging techniques. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1989;2(4):232–52. 2. Anatomy and Physiology of Coronary Arteries 16. Wang Y, Vidan E, Bergman GW. Cardiac motion of coronary arteries: variability in the rest period and implications for coronary MR angiography. Radiology 1999; 213(3):751–58. 17. Karwatowski SP, Mohiaddin RH, Yang GZ, Firmin DN, St John Sutton M, Underwood SR.

The phase of a group of stationary spins is the sum of the base magnetic field plus the contribution of the gradient field times the duration and the gyromagnetic ratio, ⌽stationary ϭ ␥*[B0 ϩ xGx] * t where, ⌽ is the phase from stationary tissues, ␥ the gyromagnetic ratio, Bo is the base magnetic field (including local inhomogeneities), x is position along gradient Gx, and t is the duration of gradient on-time. In gradient echo imaging, the phase dispersal from the dephasing gradient lobe is balanced by the net phase from the rephasing lobe, resulting in a net zero phase for stationary protons.

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